CONTENT

Learn how to effectively analyze survival data using Stata. We cover censoring, truncation, hazard rates, and survival functions. Topics include data preparation, descriptive statistics, life tables, Kaplan–Meier curves, and semiparametric (Cox) regression and parametric regression. Discover how to set the survival-time characteristics of your dataset just once then apply any of Stata’s many estimators and statistics to that data.

Written for everyone who uses Stata, whether health researchers or social scientists. We provide lesson material, detailed answers to the questions posted at the end of each lesson, and access to a discussion board on which you can post questions for other students and the course leader to answer.

PREREQUISITES

Stata 16 installed and working

Course content of NetCourse 101 or equivalent knowledge

Internet web browser, installed and working (course is platform independent)

PROGRAM

LESSON I: INTRODUCTION TO SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

Introduction

The problem of survival analysis

The need for specific distributions

Censoring

Right-censoring (withdrawal from study)

Left-censoring

Truncation

Left-truncation (delayed entry)

Right-truncation

Gaps

Survival analysis

The survivor and hazard functions

Hazard models

Parametric models

Semiparametric models

Nonparametric estimators

Analysis time (time at risk)

Summary

LESSON II: SETTING AND SUMMARIZING SURVIVAL DATA

The purpose of the stset command

The desired format—Introduction to stset

The syntax of the stset command

Specifying analysis time

Specifying what constitutes failure

Specifying when subjects exit from the analysis

Specifying when subjects enter the analysis

Specifying the subject ID variable

Handling gaps

Look at stset‘s output

Use stdescribe

Use stvary

Perhaps use stfill

Example: Hip fracture data

Appendices

Dates

Other formats

Convenience options

LESSON III: SETTING AND SUMMARIZING SURVIVAL DATA

Nonparametric estimation

The Kaplan–Meier product-limit estimator of the survivor curve

Calculation of the Kaplan–Meier survivor curve

Censored observations

Delayed entry

Gaps

Properties of the Kaplan–Meier estimator

The sts graph command

The sts list command

The stsum command

The Nelson–Aalen estimator of the cumulative hazard

Alternative estimators of the survivor and cumulative hazard functions

Comparing survival experience

The log-rank test

The Wilcoxon test

The Tarone–Ware test

The Peto–Peto–Prentice test

The Fleming–Harrington test

Test for trend across ordered groups

The Cox test

LESSON IV: REGRESSION MODELS — COX PROPORTIONAL HAZARDS

Introduction

The Cox model has no intercept

Interpreting coefficients

The effect of units on coefficients

The baseline hazard and related functions

The effect of units on the baseline functions

Summary of stcox command

The calculation of results

No tied failures

Tied failures

The marginal calculation

The partial calculation

The Breslow approximation

The Efron approximation

Summary

Stratified analysis

Obtaining coefficient estimates

Obtaining the baseline functions

Modeling

Indicator variables

Categorical variables

Continuous variables

Interactions

Time-varying variables

Using stcox with option tvc()

Using stsplit

Testing the proportional-hazards assumption

Tests based on reestimation

Test based on Schoenfeld residuals

Graphical methods

Residuals

Determining functional form

Assessing goodness of fit

Finding outliers and influential points

LESSON V: REGRESSION MODELS — PARAMETRIC SURVIVAL MODELS

Introduction

Classes of parametric models

Parametric proportional-hazards models

Accelerated failure-time models

Maximum likelihood estimation for parametric models

A survey of parametric regression models in Stata

Exponential regression

Exponential regression in the PH formulation

Exponential regression in the AFT formulation

Weibull regression

Weibull regression in the PH formulation

Weibull regression in the AFT formulation

Gompertz regression (PH formulation)

Lognormal regression (AFT formulation)

Loglogistic regression (AFT formulation)

Generalized log-gamma regression (AFT formulation)

Choosing among parametric models

Nested models

Nonnested models

Stratified models

Use of predict after streg

Predicting time of failure

Predicting the hazard and related functions

Calculating residuals

Use of stcurve after streg